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环境高关注度污染物筛选体系·Review of screening systems for prioritizing chemical substances

本文分析评价了目前主流的27个污染物筛选方法体系,并对筛选体系构建的关键要素进行了描述。论述了开发化学品筛选及危害评估体系涉及的关键问题,包括评价终点的选择、筛查基准的设定、定量暴露数据的获取等。通过讨论发现目前关于污染物筛选方法尚无共识,因此,作者建议建立基于风险的筛选方法体系,通过加强效应表征和暴露评估来提高筛选体系的准确性和有效性。文章对效应表征中的基准设定方法进行了讨论,同时建议在暴露表征中使用多残留方法以满足流域环境污染物的管理需求。该成果发表在Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology上。【全文链接

Abstract

To facilitate the development of a screening system for priority setting of chemical substances posing risk to human health and the environment, the authors reviewed and evaluated 27 different screening systems developed by governments and research groups. Description of these systems in terms of important elements was presented. Significant issues involved in developing a screening system were discussed, including selection of endpoints, determination of screening criteria or cutoff values, and ways of acquiring exposure data. There was no scientific consensus regarding to the types and numbers of endpoints incorporated, criteria or screening values for selected endpoints. A risk-based screening-level risk assessment system, therefore, was proposed as a tool to screen chemicals. It was argued that two critical issues concerning the use of risk-based system are effect and exposure characterization. Some suggestions were given for setting screening benchmarks. As for exposure characterization, especially, the potential use of multiresidue methods for obtaining exposure data in screening system was recommended. Given the extensive attention on screening risk chemical substances, it is useful to develop the risk-based screening system for minimizing chemical risks.

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